What is GIS?
Anyone who has ever tracked down driving directions on the Internet has used a geographical information system. At its simplest level, Geographic Information Science (GIS) can be thought of as high-tech mapping, but the complicated software and the people who work with it are responsible for so much more than simply creating a map. GIS professionals use information about geographical features to assess real-world problems and devise solutions.
GIS uses digital technology to help people work with geographic information. GIS professionals acquire, manage, analyze, visualize, and represent geospatial data, or information related to geographical locations. This relatively new discipline incorporates geography, cartography, spatial analysis, and fields such as geovisualization, geodesy, geocomputation, cognition, and computer science.
GIS comprises four aspects:
- The data used to create useful information
- The software that assembles that information
- The hardware that serves as the workstation
- The people who work with all of these elements
Geographical information systems capture, edit, store, manipulate, and analyze a variety of data that are used to create a display such as Internet mapping sites. GIS professionals are responsible for compiling the data and presenting it in an understandable, visual form like a map or text directions.
The key component in GIS is geography - information about the earth and the objects found on it. Its use has billion-dollar implications for businesses and governments. It can be used for choosing school sites, targeting market segments, planning distribution networks, responding to emergencies, or redrawing government boundaries. GIS specialists make devices that view and analyze data from a geographic perspective. They link locations to information, such as people to addresses, buildings to parcels of land, or intersections within a city grid system.
The GIS field began in the second half of the 20th century, when computer programmers discovered that maps could be made by changing data into code. Adding computers, aerial photography, satellite imagery, and improved data-collection techniques to cartography have opened the door to an almost infinite amount of geographical data. This vast amount of information must be managed and presented in an understandable fashion to the people who need it.
What Does a GIS Major Do?
In a nutshell, GIS professionals collect geographically related data and use that data for analysis and planning. Professionals in the field work with specialists in other fields -- such as government and public administration, criminal justice, or natural resource management -- using their data to create maps, integrate information, visualize scenarios, resolve complex issues and present ideas. The data might be used to create property boundaries, to write descriptions of land that can be used for legal purposes in leases and deeds, or to plot demographic patterns for land development.
Geographical information systems go beyond simple access. They allow users to visualize relationships that might not be possible with traditional maps and charts. More than that, the technology can create "what if" scenarios in which the GIS user takes the information about a particular location and inserts it into a new situation. One illustration of effective GIS use is in city traffic control. Transportation officials can create maps that display an analysis of road conditions and traffic counts. The system can track road construction or accidents and analyze the impact on traffic patterns. Transportation officials can plot new courses or other changes to resolve the situation.
The number of applications available has already even sifted down to the personal level. Consumers can enjoy computer-generated driving directions, Global Positioning Systems in their cars, personalized weather maps, and computer programs for home landscaping and architecture. GIS professionals help develop programs such as these.
The ability of the technology to combine and synthesize nearly every form of geographic information has made it a major tool with global applications. Its use stretches from the individual to international companies.
Preparing for a Degree in GIS
High school students interested in studying GIS should take courses in English, physics, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing and computer science. As students enter college, they should focus on studying quantitative methods, computer technology, data handling and analysis, cartographic display, and written and verbal communication.
GIS training includes spatial analysis, geographic information systems, and remote sensing. Coursework generally includes classes in natural and human social systems, applied geography, and cartography. Students who want to develop their resume might consider classes in calculus, finite mathematics, analytic geometry, and computer programming among their elective courses. Elective courses might also include advanced GIS techniques, physical geography, or human geography. Students in GIS programs often have second science-related majors or minors in geological sciences, biology, computer science, or mathematics.
Is an Advanced Degree Necessary to Work in GIS?
Most GIS positions require a minimum of a bachelor's degree. In some instances, professionals in fields such as forestry or engineering might seek a two-year degree in GIS to improve their marketability or salary. On the other hand, students who earn master's degrees in GIS might be able to earn positions of higher responsibility. Earning a PhD in GIS is usually an action taken by professionals who are pursuing a career in college teaching or research on the subject.
Some colleges offer one- or two-year GIS certificate programs. Prerequisites vary; many of these certificate programs are at the graduate level, but are not considered graduate degrees. These certificate program is often used by graduates in other fields to supplement their professional skills. Check with the individual school to determine the status of its certificate programs.
What Can You Do With a College Degree in GIS?
The private sector employs GIS professionals in specialty mapping firms, surveying and land companies, oil, electric, and gas utilities, real estate agencies, banks and insurance companies, construction companies, and national businesses that regularly seek new franchise locations. Nonprofit organizations such as environmental groups also need GIS professionals on a regular or consulting basis. State and local agencies may also employ GIS agents to aid with law enforcement, water and sewer agencies, tax assessors, planning and zoning departments, and emergency bureaus.
Here are some common GIS job titles:
- GIS analysts create graphic representations of land areas that can be used for analysis. Experienced analysts can earn extra money by developing computer programming skills that rival their cartography abilities. Because companies and clients prefer systems that can be used for projects many times, most analysts focus on building software that can routinely produce complex maps and reports. For more sophisticated or specialized projects, analysts develop highly detailed computer models of a territory that can be manipulated using a familiar user interface.
- A GIS manager develops, implements, and directs the GIS unit with an agency or firm. Based on the organization's goals, a GIS manager develops long-range plans for their department. They also oversee the short-term goals of project teams, making sure that analysts have the resources and the training to accomplish their tasks. GIS managers often set and enforce the budgets for their department, while implementing the policies and procedures of the organization. Along with basic GIS skills, the GIS manager must be able communicate effectively and have a thorough knowledge of applicable state and federal regulations.
- Cartographers do more than make maps. They also perform geographical research and compile data. They collect, analyze and interpret spatial data. They validate latitude, longitude, elevation, and distance information by combining surveying results with sophisticated satellite images. Cartographers can also overlay other types of information onto the maps they create. For example, lawmakers may hire cartographers to map out the population density of a region in advance of congressional redistricting. Agriculture companies and government agencies request customized maps that report on key trends like land-use patterns and annual precipitation levels. Marketers and large businesses review maps that reveal demographic characteristics when selecting locations for new stores or distribution centers.
- Photogrammetrists measure and analyze aerial photographs that are used to create detailed maps and drawings. These specialists concentrate on parcels of land that are inaccessible, difficult, or expensive to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify the contents of maps, using these photographs and other references. Some states require photogrammetrists to obtain licenses as professional land surveyors.
- Land surveyors supply much of the information that is used to create GIS databases. They measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on, above, and below the earth's surface. Sometimes their work includes researching legal records to determine boundaries and land ownership issues. Some surveyors specialize in high-accuracy techniques such as satellite observations, geophysical prospecting for subsurface exploration, or hydrographic surveying of harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water. Surveyors with a background in computer programming work at the forefront of GIS technology, deploying surveying equipment to refine the work of previous generations.
- Surveying technicians operate survey instruments and collect information in the field. They work with land surveyors and other specialists to refine raw data and return it to the laboratory. Many surveying technicians focus on a specific skill or expertise with a type of system or equipment. These specialists continue the work at their offices by using their field data to perform complex computations. They use computer-aided design tools to mock up early drafts of the material that will later be integrated into GIS platforms.
- Mapping technicians use field notes to calculate mapmaking information. They triangulate the shape of a region by rectifying the small differences between various sources of raw data. Once they manually correct any errors and address any potential discrepancies from a surveying team, these specialists draw topographical maps and verify their accuracy.
- Practicing professionals can earn extra income by teaching. As more community colleges offer classes in GIS, experienced professionals can spend a few hours per week as an instructor or adjunct faculty member. Colleges and universities also need professionals with advanced degrees to teach and perform research that will continue the expansion of GIS uses.
- Related Occupations. GIS is often used in conjunction with the work of civil engineers, architects, and landscape architects because accurate surveys are essential in land development and construction projects.
Did You Know?
GIS was used for recovery work following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. The attacks highlighted the uses of GIS for emergency planning and response, but they also raised issues of homeland security and public access after restrictions were placed on websites that offered access to massive amounts of geographical data.
Certification, Licensure, and Associations
Unless a GIS professional moves into surveying, no license is required. All 50 states and all U.S. territories license land surveyors. Many professionals without formal survey training start as members of survey crews and work their way up to the position of licensed surveyor. However, as survey licensing requirements become stricter, formal education requirements are increasing. Students interested in pursuing a surveying career can obtain more information about licensure from their program's career counseling office.
Trade and Industry Associations
- The University Consortium for Geographical Science
- The American Geographical Association
- The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping
- National Society of Professional Surveyors
- American Association of Geodetic Surveying
- ASPRS: The Imaging and Geospatial Information Society