What Does it Mean to Study Criminal Justice?
Criminal justice is a social science that attempts to identify and explain patterns of criminal behavior, as well as analyze society's ability to control crime and delinquency. It studies crime, criminals, and the criminal justice system. Most criminal justice degree programs use an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal studies, sociology, political science, psychology, forensic science, public administration, urban studies, and philosophy. A criminal justice degree program usually focuses on the definitions, causes, and prevention of crime, as well as the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders.
A criminal justice major can expect to learn about the legal and correctional systems in the United States, the philosophy of punishment and deterrence of crimes, and the ethical codes of behavior with which to make use of this knowledge. Graduates of these programs may go on to careers in law enforcement, court administration, victim services, or corrections. Many use the degree as a stepping stone to advance into law school or other graduate programs.
Types of Criminal Justice Degrees
The study of criminal behavior and law enforcement is becoming more sophisticated. The increasing complexity of American law and society requires that criminal justice professionals be properly educated before engaging in their sworn duties. Professionals who work in our police forces, court systems, correctional facilities and related agencies need a broad social science background.
Online degree programs for criminal justice can help students to learn the theories and practices used in the criminal justice system while completing their studies at their own pace. Those interested in a criminal justice major can find degree levels ranging from certificates to Ph.D. programs. Some programs may require an internship prior to completion.
Certificate Programs in Criminal Justice
Criminal justice certificate programs are designed to present students with an introduction to the basics of the field. These programs typically help students who are already working within the American criminal justice system to acquire a better understanding of the theories behind the system. In some situations, certificate programs can also be counted as credits toward a more advanced criminal justice degree. Core courses in these programs may include:
- Sociology of Law
- Deviance and Social Order
Associate Degrees in Criminal Justice
Earning an associate degree in criminal justice is often the minimum educational requirement for many entry-level jobs within the system. Graduates holding associate degrees may also be able to command a higher salary than those who have only completed training academies. Since associate degree credits can often be transferred to four-year institutions, these programs may also be used as a precursor to pursuing a bachelor's degree. Select core courses might include:
- Introduction to Criminal Justice
- Introduction to the American Legal System
- Correctional Systems and Theory
- Delinquency Prevention
- Criminal Investigation
Bachelor's Degrees in Criminal Justice
Bachelor's degree programs in criminal justice are a commonly-sought source of well-rounded education for those seeking employment in the criminal justice system. Some leadership positions also require applicants to hold at least a bachelor's degree in criminal justice or a related field. Traditional on-campus programs, as well as online degrees in criminal justice, are widely available at this level. Course requirements often include:
- Policing in America
- American Courts and Prosecution
- Research Methods in Criminal Justice
- Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice
- Alternatives to Incarceration
Master's Degrees in Criminal Justice
Master's degrees are commonly used as a stepping stone for career advancement, and are often pursued by those already working within the criminal justice sphere. These programs typically focus on high-level, upper-division education in research methods, statistical and policy analysis, and program management. Most master's degree programs require completion of a capstone course, as well as a research paper or thesis on criminal justice policies and practices. Examples of potential core courses include:
- Advanced Research Methods in Criminal Justice
- Applied Statistics for Criminal Justice
- Applied Crime Prevention
- Police Effectiveness
- Organizational and Structural Aspects of the Criminal Justice System
Ph.D. in Criminal Justice
Doctorate programs in criminal justice train students for careers in postsecondary education, research, or advanced public policy. These programs seek to understand crime and justice and put these concepts together to discover solutions for better crime control. Students will also be exposed to advanced research methods and criminal justice theory. In addition to all required coursework, students must complete a dissertation prior to graduation. Core courses may include:
- Survey of Criminological Theories
- Data Analysis in Criminology
- Political Economy of Crime and Justice
- Theoretical Criminology
What Can You Do With a College Degree in Criminal Justice?
Criminal justice graduates perform a variety of services for the public. They patrol the streets, investigate crimes, identify suspects, and oversee those who have been convicted of crimes -- all to protect the lives and property of their fellow citizens. Many criminal justice careers come with high degrees of responsibility, and at times these jobs can be dangerous and stressful. Most jobs are categorized and overseen at either the local, state, or federal level.
Police and Detectives
The most common place to start in criminal justice is the local, city, or county police force. Although a criminal justice degree is not always required, it is helpful and may increase the potential for promotion. Depending on the size of the department, most police departments have military-style rankings: corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, captain, and chief. Most departments of moderate size also have separate positions for detectives. Larger departments offer even more specialization, with harbor patrols, canine patrols and more.
At the state level, police officers are most often referred to as troopers. While their jobs are similar to city officers, they spend much more time enforcing traffic laws on state and interstate highways. They may also be called upon to handle emergency scenes and to assist local departments when needed. Some troopers are assigned to provide protection and security for courts, or to work as investigators. Federal level employees are often referred to as "agents."
- Minimum Educational Requirement: Educational requirements vary by locality and state. Most require either a high school diploma or college degree. Additionally, graduating from a police training academy and undergoing on-the-job training is typically required. For federal agents, completion of rigorous training through the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center is almost always a prerequisite to employment.
- Special Certifications or Licensures: Police and detectives are usually granted authority by the local, state, or federal jurisdiction under which they serve.
Correctional Officers and Bailiffs
A bailiff is a sworn law enforcement officer charged with keeping order in the courtroom and protecting those in attendance. Correctional officers work inside jails and prisons. Their duties typically include enforcement of jail rules, inmate supervision, facility inspection, and more.
- Minimum Educational Requirement: All bailiffs and correctional officers are required to possess at least a high school diploma, although some positions may require completion of a college degree.
- Special Certifications or Licensures: Completion of a training academy and on-the-job training is usually required.
Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists are tasked with monitoring criminal offenders and assisting in their rehabilitation so they do not commit more crimes. Duties often include meeting with probationers in person, evaluating rehabilitation tactics, drug testing probationers, maintaining case files and reports, and helping probationers to find employment resources.
- Minimum Educational Requirements: Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists usually need a bachelor's degree. Successful completion of training programs is typically required by the state.
- Special Certifications or Licensures: After completing state or federally sponsored training programs, probation officers and correctional treatment specialists are usually required to pass a certification exam. A valid driver's license, as well as the passing of both a drug test and background check, is also required.
Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers
In private security, organizations contract individuals or companies to protect property and prevent losses of all types. Some of the most common groups that hire private security are amusement parks, malls, colleges, hospitals, country clubs, and many different retail and industrial clients. Casinos and other gaming institutions also hire security and surveillance officers.
- Minimum Educational Requirements: A high school diploma is typically required for security guard and gaming surveillance officer positions. Experience using video surveillance may also be required.
- Special Certifications or Licensures: Certification and licensure requirements vary by state, although most states do require some type of registration. Guards who carry firearms must be legally registered to do so.
Criminal Justice Salaries and Career Outlook Data
|Career||Total Employment||Annual Mean Wage||Projected Job Growth Rate|
|Correctional Officers and Jailers||415,000||$49,300||-7.2%|
|Detectives and Criminal Investigators||103,450||$85,020||2.5%|
|Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators||10,230||$36,200||3.8%|
|Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers||661,330||$65,400||5%|
|Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists||87,660||$58,790||3.3%|
Criminal Justice Associations and Organizations
Graduates with a criminal justice degree have the option to join any number of associations and organizations for career support and advancement. Some act as fraternal organizations while others work to advance the interests of those in the law enforcement and criminal justice community. Here are a few:
- International Brotherhood of Police Officers/International Brotherhood of Correctional Officers (IBPO/IBCO) -- This organization runs under the National Association of Government Employees (NAGE), a firm that advocates for police officers and correctional officers.
- American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) -- The APPA is an association of pretrial, probation, and parole professionals across the United States, Canada, and several other countries. The association advocates for its members, assisting them with continued education and resources.
- American Correctional Association (ACA) -- The ACA is an association that was created specifically for corrections professionals. The group seeks to improve correctional effectiveness by hosting trainings and conferences for its members.
- Correctional Officers and Bailiffs, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/correctional-officers.htm
- Police and Detectives, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm
- Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/probation-officers-and-correctional-treatment-specialists.htm
- Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/security-guards.htm